Friday, May 1, 2020

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities †

Question: Discuss about the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities System. Answer: Introduction: The purpose of this essay is to provide a brief overview about the social perspectives related to the social determinants of health. Social perspectives of health refer to condition under that the people in a community are born, grown and live etc. It refers to the circumstances that are shaped for people living in the society by the way of circulation of income, control, and resources at global as well as local levels. This process mainly explains about the health inequalities which is the unfair and unavoidable different in health. These are also linked to the economy and the social conditions present in the environment. There is difference in health status of different people that creates an impact on their wellbeing as well. The social determinants should support the health of people in the society so as to bring equality in the society (Ferrer, 2018). Further, the below mentioned essay provides a brief explains of the two sociological theories that explains social determinants o f health and their comparison with the medical model of health. The conflict theory explains about the economic and political structures present in the society that creates social division, inequality and conflicts. The conflict theory is a perspective of the social, material or political inequality of a group that affects the wellness and ideology of a person present in the society. In the traditional times, sociologists argues on conflict theory that the society and the economy creates social divisions and class that produce conflicts and then reproduce them as well. Some theories explain that the conflict theory ideological thought of people but it is now believed that this theory is not based on the peace and conflicts studies of society (Rubin, 2016). Further, the conflict theory is somewhat related to the theory defined by Karl Marx. Marx explained that the conflict theory mainly relates to the Marxism; this aspect suggested that capitalism (socio-economic system which includes the private ownership of resources) like the other socioeconomic system creates a predictable tension under a person which leads to self-destruction. Further, Marx also explained a radical change and revolution in the society which explained the freedom from ruling classes in the society. Further, he also explained the ways in which the society was shaped; the community in which people live is suppressed by the capitalist people who initiate all the operations and decisions in the community (Pacquiao, 2016). Relating it to the private property right, just as people see that the property that they hold is now going to be forwarded to their children which is a natural process, so many people present in the capitalist society believes that a rich person has e arned reputation in the society by working hard and educating themselves properly, while the poor people are lacking skills and caliber. After looking this type of assumption, Marx rejected the prevailing culture and thinking of people. As, the traditional thinking of people explained the social problems as the shortcoming of personalities not the defects in the society (Smith, 2016). If a person in the society is unable to attain good health or proper education then it is not their fault, nor they inherited it from their ancestors but it is the issues present in the society that are stopping them from growth. Under this theory, the practitioner Marx wanted create differentiation in the society by creating class consciousness under which people believe that all of them are unified and they cannot be differentiated as per capitalist society. The main aim of this theory was to rise upon in contradiction of the capitalist society and overthrow it from the society in which they live. Tw o other theorists also explained their views on the conflict theory namely the American sociologist and paleontologist Lester F. Ward (18411913) and Polish-Austrian sociologist political theorist Ludwig Gumplowicz and (18381909). Both of the people developed their view of the theories independently but their thinking was mostly common and correct approach for the society. They focused on the anthropological and evolutionary aspects not just the economic point of view (Garg, Boynton-Jarrett, Dworkin, 2016). Wright Mills is viewed as a founder of modern conflict theory, according to him social structure is created by conflicts between people having different opinions and resources in the society. And in turn the resources and individual are influenced by the social structure. So, this activity happens in a circular motion where both aspects are dependent on each other. Do, it should be noted, that no actions should be taken in the society that increase the destruction and conflicts. The Marxism theory is associated with this case but it is not dependent on a single status (Strauss, 2017). Another approach that is related to the social determinants of health is the symbolic interactionism approach. Under this approach, the main emphasis is laid on the health and as a social construction. This states that various corporal and psychological conditions do not have objective reality but they are measured to be healthy or ill only when they are exclaimed by the society and its people. The symptoms stated by people define their illness or wellness. Thus, it should be noted that health and illness are socially constructed by people; it depends upon their actions and activities that shows and determines their state of health. People suffering from hyperactive disorder tend to explain their problem in more elaborative ways which makes people think that they are suffering from major issues and it is also declared by them. The symbolic interactionists believe that objects attain their identity only through the interaction initiated between people that bring output to things (Baum , 2016). Further, it should be noted that under this theory the interactionists mainly works on the ways to find out the causes to illness in a person. The medical term medicalization of deviance refers to the state of a person when bad behavior changes into sick behavior and demedicalization refers to the process under which sick actions is standardized again. Medicalization and demedicalization affect who replies to the patient, how people answer to patients and how people see the person accountability of a patient (Barker, Quennerstedt, Annerstedt, 2015). Relating it to an example it should be noted that in earlier times, people who used to drink a lot were categorized as bad and lazy people and they proclaimed as drunks. But now in the current era, this habit of excessively drinking is found in most of the people which are now defined as a disease or a hereditary tendency to addiction (Denzin, 2017). Further, by understanding alcoholism as a disease but not as personal wish, the fact app eared to be more understanding. Thus, in this way badness was transformed into illness. Lastly, it should also be noted that as interactionism is subjective to the behavior of people, so when the activities are defined as illness then the pharmacological corporations make money by treating such illness which are not even illness (Nicholls, et. al., 2016). Relating the above two models with the medical model of health, it should be noted that both the aspects and their models have different approaches to rectify the wellness and wellbeing of people present in the society. Under the medical model of health, it is believed that illness of a person can only be treated through medication; there are no other ways to treat a person. Drugs and medicines are important for the patients as they only will cure the diseases of the person. Also, it should be noted that this model does not looks for the cause of the issues like social model instead they only believes in curing the disease through bio-medical ways (Charkazi, et. al., 2014). Contradicting to this, the social models explained above (conflict and symbolic) focus on cause and the ways that define the problem of illness of a person. These model states that there are many other reasons apart from the medical issues that can cause illness in a person like economies present in the environmen t, poverty, personal opinions etc. Further, under the medical model, the doctor examines the health of patient and provides them drugs accordingly they do not look for the cause of the disease. For instance, if a person is suffering from the problem of insomniac, this is not an actual problem but there can be various reasons due to which a person is unable to sleep like tension, stress etc. So, under the medical model the doctor will provide sleeping pills to the patient so that they can sleep properly but under the social model the symbolic interactionists model will determine the case and reason due to which the person is feeling insomniac and cure them accordingly (Mackelprang, Salsgiver, 2016). Thus, in the limelight of above mentioned events it should be noted that all the models have their different use and significance at different place. Some cases can treated through social model while other requires medical attention. So, the above mentioned essay explains the difference in these models. References Barker, D., Quennerstedt, M., Annerstedt, C. (2015). Learning through group work in physical education: A symbolic interactionist approach.Sport, Education and Society,20(5), 604-623. Baum, F. (2016).The new public health(No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press. Charkazi, A., Fazli, L., Alizadeh, F., Fazelnia, A., Bakhsha, F. (2014). Regular physical activity based on transtheoretical model among Health and Paramedic Schools of Golestan University of Medical Sciences.Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion,1(4), 57-68. Denzin, N. K. (2017).The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. Routledge. Ferrer, R. L. (2018). Social Determinants of Health. InChronic Illness Care(pp. 435-449). Springer, Cham. Garg, A., Boynton-Jarrett, R., Dworkin, P. H. (2016). Avoiding the unintended consequences of screening for social determinants of health.Jama,316(8), 813-814. Mackelprang, R. W., Salsgiver, R. (2016).Disability: A diversity model approach in human service practice. Oxford University Press. Nicholls, D. A., Atkinson, K., Bjorbkmo, W. S., Gibson, B. E., Latchem, J., Olesen, J., ... Setchell, J. (2016). Connectivity: An emerging concept for physiotherapy practice.Physiotherapy theory and practice,32(3), 159-170. Pacquiao, D. F. (2016). Social Determinants of Health.Global Health Care: Issues and Policies, 159. Rubin, I. L. (2016). Social Determinants of Health. InHealth Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan(pp. 1919-1932). Springer, Cham. Smith, I. H. (2016). From Cultivation to Consumption: Linking Urban Agriculture, Nutritional Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and Telehealth to Food Deserts and the Social Determinants of Health.Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences,5(1), 20-24. Strauss, A. L. (2017).Psychological modeling: Conflicting theories. Routledge.

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