Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Exam Study Guide Essay
The beneficial consequences that may result from the legalization of euthanasia as proposed by brock are the following: a. serve as an insurance policy- it comforts patients by allowing them to know that it is there if they need it b. respect the self determination of individuals c. provide a relief from prolonged suffering d. make a dignified death possible 2. In his article on VA euthanasia, Brock examines two broad lines of arguments against euthanasia: a. deontological b. utilitarian 3. People are generally opposed to killing because they have learned or been taught to think about it in negative terms. Killing is usually reported in the context of murder, not in the context of humanitarian service. 4. Allowing someone to die involves withholding intervention, when no cure is possible or withdrawing intervention because it is no longer able to cure a dying patient. 5. To the idea that active voluntary euthanasia is incompatible with a physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s moral and professional commitment is to care for patients and protect life, Brock replies: the commitment to self determination and well being ought to be at the center of medical practice, not just preserving life. 6. To the objection that allowing euthanasia would undermine general confidence in health-care services providing optimal care for dying patients, Brock replies: There is no reason to fear that euthanasia is going to erode patients trust if only voluntary euthanasia is allowed. 7. Among the ethical considerations relating to genetic testing are the following: a. do parents have the right to be informed of all the results of a genetic test? b. does a person have a right to have children who are likely to be impaired? c. should public funds be used to pay for genetic esting when people are unable to pay? 8. Therapeutic sterilization is the termination of the ability to produce offspring if the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s life or mental health is in danger. 9. In the context of euthanasia, the slippery slope argument is the idea that it will eventually lead to a diminishing of our respect of life. 10. Abuses of laws permitting active euthanasia can be prevented by doing the following: a. make sure tha t it is the patient voluntarily making the decision to have it. b. make sure that there is no chance of recovery for the patient. c. he patient must feel that they are not being a burden to their family because of their illness. 11. Among the benefits of genetic testing are the following: a. improves the lives of the parents and at times, the child b. provides assistance for parents who wish to make rational decisions regarding their family planning 12. Ethical considerations with surrogate motherhood include the following: a. is it right to ask a surrogate mother to give up all rights to a baby she carried for nine months? b. potential court battles over custody of a child conceived outside of marriage. c. uture emotional distress when the child learns that they were deliberately taken away from their natural mother. 13. Extraordinary care means when caring for a comatose patient, one should include: B. CPR, mechanical breathing 14. The set of conditions that must be present to determine if a patient is an irreversible coma is known as the Harvard Criteria. 15. The care given to terminally ill patients that consist of comfort measures and symptom control is referred to as palliative care. 16. The Baby M case is an example of: C. problems encountered as a result of the use of a surrogate 7. An infertile couple who does not wish to adopt has the option of surrogate motherhood. 18. While the goal of therapeutic genetic interventions is to restore the patient to the best state of health as possible, the goal of nontherapeutic or enhancement genetic engineering is to improve on an otherwise healthy body. 19. A viable infant is one who is able to survive after birth. 20. Provide examples of ordinary versus extraordinary means used in the treatment of terminally ill: ordinary includes- treatment that is morally required, such as giving fluids and providing comfort measures. xtraordinary includes- procedures and treatments that are morally expendable, example: providing chemotherapy to a patient who has end stage cancer 21. The Karen Ann Quinlan case involved: C. removal of a respirator from a comatose patient 22. A type of settlement that allows people with terminal illnesses, such as AIDS, to obtain money from their insurance policies by selling them is called a viatical settlement. 23. The Karen Ann Quinlan case is an example of: C. withdrawing treatment 24. What are some of the measures to assess quality of life? a. general health b. physical function c. social function d. pain e. mental health 25. What measures does palliative care include? a. comfort measures b. symptom control for pain, shortness of breath, support therapy, etc. c. relief of pain and suffering d. make the end-of-life period a meaningful experience for the patient 26. Why did the surgeons attempt to separate conjoined twins Laden and Laleh Bijani when the chances of survival were apparently very slim? ecause he was persuaded to proceed with the operation based on medical evidence and the strong desire of the twins to be separated; he wanted to make sure they had their best chance. 27. What are the Kubler-rossÃ¢â¬â¢s five stages of dying? 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance 28. People who are against euthanasia offer the following reasons: a. possibility of mistaken diagnosis b. doubt about how voluntary a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s choice is c. it dis torts the moral responsibility of doctors. The role of the doctor is to care for his patients, not to shorten their lives. 29. Genetic counseling involves investigation and counsel through interview and conferencing with prospective parents to determine: the risk of passing on a genetic disease to their offspring. 30. A surrogate mother is a woman who: a woman who is carrying the ovum of the wife or another woman who is unable to give birth, and the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s sperm to eventually birth a child- they are bound under contract to give up the child at birth to the couple they agreed to complete this with. Most are paid from $20-25,000 in medical expenses. 31. To the idea that active voluntary euthanasia is incompatible with the octorÃ¢â¬â¢s moral commitment to care for patients and protect life, Brock replies: the commitment to self determination and well being ought to be at the center of medical practice, not just preserving life. 32. For Rachels, the distinction between active and passive euthanasia often leads to decisions concerning life and death made on the conventional doctrine. 33. On the issue of euthanasia, Rachels argues that Ã¢â¬Å"letting die,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"doing nothing,Ã¢â¬ is a form of passive euthanasia. 34. For James Rachels, the Standard View is wrong. If active euthanasia is sometimes permissible then passive euthanasia is also sometimes sometimes permissible.